Very interesting and useful article, for those who want to lose weight or gain muscle mass.
"Metabolism" - the phrase is almost magical. First, because we all know it, but less than half can identify it. Secondly, because "good" or "bad" metabolism - a favorite excuse of many lazy people and personalities run itself. Thirdly, because the ability of this or that magic solution "to affect the metabolism" is one of the favorite methods of manipulation over the minds of those who wish to find the figure of your dreams, both those wishing to gain muscle mass and dieters. It's time to understand what it is, and make conclusions for themselves.
Metabolism (or metabolism) is the set of all chemical reactions that occur in a living organism. Protein synthesis, the splitting of glucose, the digestion of starch by the formation of new cell membranes or myofibrils — any chemical processes that may come to mind, together with other reactions that constitute our metabolism. Although the reactions occurring in the body, a huge set, they can be divided into two large groups: on the reaction of synthesis and decomposition reaction.
Synthesis reactions (anabolic reaction) is a reaction in which simple substances are complex. As an example, any reaction of the synthesis: protein synthesis from amino acids, synthesis of glycogen from glucose, the synthesis of phospholipids (major component of cell membranes). It is in these reactions are responsible for the creation of any structures in your body, they are building muscle, they also grow the reserves of fat cells. This reaction is "creative", body builds large and complex molecules from building blocks, so like any other creative process, such reactions require energy costs. Any anabolic reaction the body will have to "spend money". If anabolic reactions are energy-consuming and, in addition, require building material, where will we get both? The answer is simple: in reactions of the opposite in terms of getting products of the reactions of decomposition of complex compounds to simple.
Spallation reactions in a different way are called "catabolic reactions". As you know, "to destroy — not to build", and the processes of decomposition of complex molecules to simple not only provide obtaining the building blocks for anabolic reactions, but occur with a release of energy. Energy can dissipate as heat (for example, this occurs when the digestion of food, you've probably noticed that after a heavy meal, you quickly get warm), or to stock up in the form of special molecules. As fuel for energy-intensive processes our body uses the energy molecules, called ATP. This is a kind of "electricity" running "machines" of the body. All energy sources that can be used in the future, our cells are transferred to ATP with the help of special processes (like, for example, many sources of energy one puts into electricity, because the situation when the energy source is universal, much better than the situation when the refrigerator runs on electricity, the kettle from the heat energy of combustion of firewood, water for the shower is heated up by the sun, and to lift loads to the higher floors have a mechanical work by means of a rope thrown over the blocks).
To reactions of the catabolism is glycolysis (oxygen-free splitting of glucose), the breakdown of fats, amino acids and other reactions in which complex molecules are simple (and simply put, any that can be described by the word "splitting" or "expansion"). This group of reactions is responsible for the burning of your "savings" (just the thing, any savings, as fat and muscle).
As you can see, anabolic and catabolic reactions - they are two opposites that complement each other and can not exist one without the other.
Here you can make the first conclusion: we, shall we "increase" or "decrease", depends on which reaction dominates. If to speak simply and not to take into account the hormonal regulation of metabolism (and it is of fundamental importance for the occurrence of certain reactions, will therefore be considered separately), then the reaction will predominate when the reaction product is small compared to the source substances. Catabolic reactions are stimulated in the case of simple substances in the body are small compared with complex (for example, as a result of dietary restrictions. If you no longer get glucose from food, the body activates the catabolic reaction is the breakdown of glycogen (a complex molecule) to produce glucose (simple molecules)). The terms "fasting" on a particular simple substance stimulates the processes of decomposition of complex substances, of which it can be obtained. Anabolic processes are activated when the body receives a lot of simple substances and has sufficient energy. From here it becomes clear that the simultaneous marked increase in muscle mass (anabolic process) and visible fat burning (catabolic process).
Due to the vast number of chemical reactions in the body, usually do not speak about metabolism in General, and about the metabolism of individual classes of compounds. For example, about carbohydrate metabolism or fat metabolism. In such a concept includes all the transformations faced by this class of compounds in the body, from the time of admission with meals until the allocation of the products of its transformations, which for the organism are "extra" and released into the environment.
Time and time again you've heard about "metabolic rate". Most often a high "speed" is associated with "lucky you", as comes to mind a slender man without significant amount of fat (albeit almost devoid of musculature). What do mean by this term? When people talk about the "metabolic rate", they usually mean an increased rate of catabolic reactions, which contribute to the destruction of the body (hence the advice on the "acceleration of metabolism", which causes the body when choosing between combustion and storage to choose incineration). Some of these measures also contribute to the activation of anabolic processes, but what you "accelerate" these measures will be far more dependent on your power, individual characteristics of the organism in General and of the endocrine system in particular. And when it comes to specific recommendations on diet and lifestyle, these measures can have the proper impact,since it is usually linked with attempts to regulate the levels of certain hormones. And another thing — lists "of foods that accelerate the metabolism", which have virtually no impact without the use of other methods of stimulation of certain reactions.
Now let's talk about one of the most interesting aspects of hormonal regulation of metabolism. Hormones are molecules that the body produces to control the processes taking place in cells. The effect of various hormones on metabolic processes may be similar (in this case, they are referred to as synergistic) and opposing (hormone antagonists).
The main hormones that control the main "energy" of the body — glucose are insulin and glucagon. Insulin is produced in response to a significant increase in the level of glucose in the blood and commands the cells (a variety of) to take glucose from the blood.
It also accelerates the synthesis of glycogen in the muscles and enhances flow of amino acids from blood into muscle cells. Increased levels of insulin leads to the predominance of processes of synthesis of protein and fatty acids over their breakup. So the consumption of simple carbs after a workout (at this time requires a quick restoration of glycogen stores and synthesis of muscle proteins, which replaced the damaged by the workout) and increase the level of insulin, which followed, is quite important for the successful growth of muscle mass. In General, when choosing "what to do with glucose is" the body is always there are several possibilities: to be used for ATP synthesis, to put the liver glycogen, muscle glycogen or to be postponed as fat. If the first 3 needs are satisfied, the body is nothing left but to postpone glucose as fat reserves. Therefore, sudden increases of insulin at any other time except the morning (18-24 hours fasting completely depletes the liver glycogen, in the morning because of the night break in the meal, there is a shortage) and after training (T. E. in circumstances where there is a deficiency of the glycogen of the muscles), contribute to irouleguy.
Thyroid hormones also play an important role in the regulation of metabolic processes, anabolic and catabolic. With their lack or excess can be related to morbid obesity (with a lack of these hormones, which slows metabolic reactions) or unhealthy leanness (usually with increased appetite and enlargement of the thyroid gland, which is associated with enhanced secretion of these hormones and leads to the reduction of many key metabolic reactions).
Hormones that play an important role in the mobilization of fat from "fat reserves" - the hormones of the adrenal cortex, epinephrine and norepinephrine. These hormones stimulate fat cells, causing them to turn an enzyme that breaks down their reserves, and release into blood fatty acids, which the body then has a chance to be used as energy source. "Imitators" of these hormones are normal components of fat burners, which cause the body to use fat reserves as an energy source. Based on this and the action of the burners.
The hormones activate protein synthesis (which is very important for building muscle tissue) — growth hormone and androgens (the main one, synthesized in the body — testosterone). On the basis of natural androgens produced numerous synthetic analogs of testosterone that have greater anabolic activity (i.e., effectively stimulate the synthesis of protein) and less androgenous (i.e. not as pronounced stimulate the development of the body of a male). The adrenal hormones called corticosteroids that act on the protein metabolism of the muscles on the contrary — they activate the decomposition reaction of the protein that prolonged exposure can lead to muscle atrophy. These hormones are produced in response to stress, and are also used in medicine to suppress allergic reactions.